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[208] Mao often offered vague, yet powerful directives that led to the factionalization of the Red Guards. [114], The Gang of Four grew apprehensive that spontaneous, large-scale popular support for Zhou could turn the political tide against them. La police et la milice de Jiang Qing chargent les manifestants qui doivent se replier de la place. On October 10, Deng Xiaoping personally wrote a letter to Hua asking to be transferred back to state and party affairs; party elders also called for Deng's return. Zhou said that the artworks were for meant for foreigners, therefore were "outer" art not be under the obligations and restrictions placed on "inner" art meant for Chinese citizens. [272] While Mao's personal motivations were undoubtedly pivotal to the Cultural Revolution, they reasoned that other complex factors contributed to the way events unfolded. Hu published an article in the Guangming Daily, making clever use of Mao's quotations while lauding Deng's ideas. Chen's resistance was the last major open display of opposition to the movement within the army. "[248] After the Cultural Revolution, Deng affirmed that Maoist ideology was responsible for the revolutionary success of the Communist Party, but abandoned it in practice to favour "Socialism with Chinese characteristics", a very different model of state-directed market economics. "[43] This decision defined the Cultural Revolution as "a great revolution that touches people to their very souls and constitutes a deeper and more extensive stage in the development of the socialist revolution in our country:"[44]. [117], On September 9, 1976, Mao Zedong died. These operas were the only approved opera form and other opera troupes were required to adopt or change their repertoire. Meanwhile, tens of millions of people were persecuted: senior officials, most notably Chinese president Liu Shaoqi, along with Deng Xiaoping, Peng Dehuai, and He Long, were purged or exiled; millions were accused of being members of the Five Black Categories, suffering public humiliation, imprisonment, torture, hard labor, seizure of property, and sometimes execution or harassment into suicide; intellectuals were considered the "Stinking Old Ninth" and were widely persecuted—notable scholars and scientists such as Lao She, Fu Lei, Yao Tongbin, and Zhao Jiuzhang were killed or committed suicide. In this spirit, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, established People's Communes in the countryside, and began the mass mobilization of the people into collectives. Le prétexte au déclenchement de la révolution culturelle a été une pièce de théâtre parue en 1961, La Destitution de Hai Rui, de Wu Han, historien et vice-maire de Pékin. Written mainly by educated youth such as Liu Xinhua, Zhang Xianliang, and Liu Xinwu, scar literature depicted the Revolution from a negative viewpoint, using their own perspectives and experiences as a basis. [176], Concessions given to minorities were abolished during the Cultural Revolution as part of the Red Guards' attack on the "Four Olds". The permissible subject matter of proletarian and socialist literature would be strictly defined, and all the literary periodicals in the country ceased publication by 1968. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Chinois, encore un effort pour être révolutionnaires ! Le sinologue Jacques Guillermaz indique qu'en janvier 1967, une partie de l’armée régulière intervient dans certaines villes (Shanghai, Qingdao, Jinan, Taiyuan, etc.) [81] One dentist in a small town, Dr. Han, saw the mango and said it was nothing special and looked just like sweet potato; he was put on trial for malicious slander, found guilty, paraded publicly throughout the town, and then executed with one shot to the head. En 1968, Liu Shaoqi et Deng Xiaoping sont éliminés du pouvoir, Zhou Enlai est toujours présent mais il s'est aligné sur Mao Zedong qui a retrouvé toute sa plénitude de dirigeant. Mao wanted to use Deng as a counterweight to the military faction in government to suppress any remaining influence of those formerly loyal to Lin Biao. Mais il est violemment réprimé. While Mao initially praised the play, in February 1965, he secretly commissioned his wife Jiang Qing and Shanghai propagandist Yao Wenyuan to publish an article criticizing it. In Wuhan, there were 62 suicides and 32 murders during the same period. Gao, Gao. [195] Many died as a result of their ordeal and humiliation—the names of 200 well-known writers and artists who were persecuted to death during the Cultural Revolution were commemorated in 1979, these include writers such as Lao She, Fu Lei, Deng Tuo, Baren, Li Guangtian, Yang Shuo, and Zhao Shuli. La Grande Famine en Chine, 1958-1961, http://perspectiveschinoises.revues.org/2493, Simon Leys, pourfendeur clairvoyant de Mao et du maoïsme, Révolution culturelle en Chine : les remords d'une garde rouge, Par rapport à ses objectifs initiaux : Le bilan de la « révolution culturelle » apparaît en Chine largement négatif, Génération perdue. Hua Guofeng chaired the Funeral Committee and delivered the memorial speech. Un peu à la manière du courant alternatif, il va nous faire passer du rire avec Charlie Chaplin dans … Posted on February 27, 2013 by irenevelazquez. Chongqing city, a center of arms manufacturing, was the site of ferocious armed clashes between the two factions, with one construction site in the city estimated to involve 10,000 combatants with tanks, mobile artillery, anti-aircraft guns and "virtually every kind of conventional weapon." De plus, l'armée lui apporte son soutien inconditionnel avec Lin Biao à sa tête. Die industrielle Revolution ist als Epoche auf das späte 18. [166][172][173], The Cultural Revolution wreaked much havoc on minority cultures and ethnicities in China. The revolution also aimed to "sweep away" all "cow demons and snake spirits", that is, all the class enemies who promoted bourgeois ideas within the party, the government, the army, among the intellectuals, as well as those from an exploitative family background or who belonged to one of the Five Black Categories. However, the Revolution's active phase would last until at least 1971, when Lin Biao, accused of a botched coup against Mao, fled and died in a plane crash. Be the first. Car « ce n'était pas que des cris et des gens mobilisés de façon incompréhensible. Date de la publication originale : 1968 Période freirienne : Exil (1964-1979) Catégories : Extraits de livre / Acción cultural para la libertad (1968) […] In 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his policies, and began implementing post-Stalinist economic reforms. In Albania, Communist leader and Chinese ally Enver Hoxha began a "Cultural and Ideological Revolution" organized along the same lines as the Cultural Revolution. Les femmes-ouvrières et ménagères-mettent le feu … NEW EVIDENCE SUGGESTS FAR HIGHER NUMBERS FOR THE VICTIMS OF MAO ZEDONG'S ERA", "China: the Cultural Revolution | Mass Atrocity Endings", "A Brief Overview of China's Cultural Revolution", "Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Primary Megadeaths of the Twentieth Century", Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Decision Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, "Student Attacks Against Teachers: The Revolution of 1966", "Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–1976)", "How China came to worship the mango during the Cultural Revolution", "The Mao Mango Cult of 1968 and the Rise of China's Working Class", Basic Knowledge about the Communist Party of China: The Eleventh Congress, "230,000 Died in a Dam Collapse That China Kept Secret for Years", "Interview: 'People Were Eaten by The Revolutionary Masses, "Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) | Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance - Research Network", "Chinese Red Guards Apologize, Reopening A Dark Chapter", "Chaos of Cultural Revolution Echoes at a Lonely Cemetery, 50 Years Later", "The Cultural Revolution: all you need to know about China's political convulsion", "Rise of the Veil: Islamic Modernity and the Hui Woman", "China's 'lost generation' recall hardships of Cultural Revolution", "The Sick Man of Asia. Le mouvement d'envoi des jeunes instruits à la campagne en Chine, 1968-1980, Statuts du Parti communiste chinois en 1969, Violences de masse en République Populaire de Chine depuis 1949, Du maoïsme à la bourse, en passant par les geôles chinoises, History and memory present reflections on the past to build our future, « Chine:La vidéo et internet contre l'histoire officielle », Trouver une place pour les victimes. Elle a demandé pardon, en 2014, pour ses actes commis pendant la révolution culturelle. [197] Nevertheless, during the Cultural Revolution, Chinese scientists still managed to successfully test the first missile, create the first hydrogen bomb and launch the first satellite in the Two Bombs, One Satellite program. The power-seizure movement was rearing its head in the military as well. [46] The government bore the expenses of Red Guards travelling around the country exchanging "revolutionary experiences". It elevated what was previously a student movement to a nationwide mass campaign that would galvanize workers, farmers, soldiers and lower-level party functionaries to rise, challenge authority, and re-shape the "superstructure" of society. [193], Academics and intellectuals were regarded as the "Stinking Old Ninth" and were widely persecuted. « Les sbires du dictateur entreprirent à partir de 1966 la destruction systématique, méthodique, calculée, planifiée et totale de la civilisation tibétaine. Les armes utilisées dans les conflits armés comprenaient quelque 18,77 millions (certains disent 1,877 million[92]) d’armes à feu, 2,72 millions de grenades, 14 828 canons, des millions d’autres munitions et même des voitures blindées et des chars[78]. These sentiments increased following the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in 1999 when a segment of the population began to associate anti-Maoist viewpoints with the United States. [14][failed verification] By 1962, while Zhou, Liu and Deng managed affairs of state and the economy, Mao had effectively withdrawn from economic decision-making, and focused much of his time on further contemplating his contributions to Marxist–Leninist social theory, including the idea of "continuous revolution". Created Date: 4/12/2007 1:33:00 PM Company: Université de Fribourg Other titles: MATIÈRE D’EXAMEN (ÉVALUATION) : « LA RÉVOLUTION CULTURELLE SOVIÉTIQUE ET L’ÉMERGENCE DE … Il s'agit non plus de contrôler, mais d'éradiquer le christianisme et toute autre religion. Quand la tendance de Mao a commencé son offensive publique contre les positions solides de ses adversaires, en faisant marcher les étudiants et les enfants des écoles embrigadés, elle ne visait dans l’immédiat aucune sorte de refonte « culturelle » ou « civilisatrice » des masses de travailleurs, déjà serrées au plus fort degré dans le carcan idéologique dans la rue, au service de cette tendance, l’idéologie du régime, qui est, par définition, maoïste », Note : Le maréchal Chen Yi a été le premier, « Le camarade Lin Piao a toujours porté haut levé le drapeau de la pensée-maotsétoung. Some changes associated with the "Four Olds" campaign were mainly benign, such as assigning new names to city streets, places, and even people; millions of babies were born with "revolutionary"-sounding names during this period. En octobre de la même année il doit faire son autocritique. Our hope is placed on you.… The world belongs to you. Ils organisaient des grandes réunions et écrivaient des pièces de théâtre destinées à édifier le peuple. Des textes s'attaquent à l'« impératrice rouge »[Note 3] Jiang Qing et à ses proches. [33], Mao promptly endorsed Nie's dazibao as "the first Marxist big-character poster in China." The famine caused the deaths of more than 30 million people, particularly in the more impoverished inland regions. La milice se rend pratiquement sans combattre, la population soutenant l'arrestation de l'« impératrice rouge ». Food was in desperate shortage, and production fell dramatically. Scholars and academics continue to debate why events unfolded the way they did, Mao's role, how the Cultural Revolution began, and what it was. de] G. Conio [Contributions par B. Eikhenbaum et autres. annonce le début de la Révolution Culturelle –25 mai - Une affiche en grandes caractères (dazibao en chinois) est mise à l'Université de Beijing pour dénoncer les dirigeants –Août-Novembre - il y a eu environ 11 millions de Gardes rouges dans le pays –Août - La Révolution culturelle a condamné toute forme de [Paris: FM/petite collection Maspero. »[11]. The effect on Tibet had been particularly severe as it came following the repression after the 1959 Tibetan uprising. Selon l'historiographie chinoise, la révolution culturelle commence en 1966 et s'achève à la mort de Mao Zedong en 1976. Ils interviendront « contre le rétablissement du capitalisme sous toutes ses formes ». If things turned out differently from what Mao expected, Walder concluded, this was “probably due to the fact that Mao did not know what he wanted, or that he did know what he was doing, or both.... the outcomes are what one should have expected, given the Maoist doctrine and aims.” Avec la révolution culturelle, il revint à sa vocation d'origine, assumant à nouveau le rôle de chef de guérilla luttant contre la bureaucratie institutionnalisée du parti. People's communes, previously only established in parts of Tibet, were established throughout Tibetan Autonomous Region in 1966,[177] removing Tibet's exemption from China's period of land reform, and reimposed in other minority areas. Nous devons liquider tous les génies malfaisants. Une fois Lin Biao et ses partisans éliminés, la lutte s'intensifie entre les « idéologues » de la Bande des Quatre emmenés par Jiang Qing et les « pragmatiques » rassemblés autour de Zhou Enlai. Le Congrès national populaire élit alors Liu Shaoqi comme successeur de Mao Zedong. This was especially important as minorities make up a large percentage of the population that live along China's borders. "[253], One of the student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Shen Tong, author of Almost a Revolution, has a positive view of some aspects of the Cultural Revolution. Révolution culturelle à Manhat...→ Culture [258], In 2018, it was reported that one practice typical of the Cultural Revolution, Fengqiao, or public criticism of supposed counter-revolutionaries by a whole village, was experiencing an unexpected revival: but it is unclear whether this was an isolated incident or a sign of a renewed interest for cultural styles typical of the Revolution. According to the official documents in the prosecution of the Gang of Four, 142,000 cadres and teachers in the education circles were persecuted and noted academics, scientists, and educators who died included Xiong Qinglai, Jian Bozan, Wu Han, Rao Yutai, Wu Dingliang, Yao Tongbin and Zhao Jiuzhang. Many factional struggles were not unlike religious wars, with all sides claiming allegiance to the most "authentic" form of Maoism. Cette vision est contraire à celle que le parti communiste chinois et l'intelligentsia chinoise ont de la révolution culturelle, vision qui est reprise par les médias occidentaux et la plupart des chercheurs[137]. Mao was troubled by the PLA's newfound prominence, and the purge of Chen Boda marked the beginning of a gradual scaling-down of the PLA's political involvement. Hua Guofeng engaged in self-criticism and called his "Two Whatevers" a mistake. Many uneducated farmers were pulled from farming and harvesting and instead instructed to produce steel on a massive scale, partially relying on backyard furnaces to achieve the production targets set by local cadres. Le 15 décembre 1966, il incite les villages à faire de même. Andrew, Christopher. "The East Is Red", especially, became popular; it de facto supplanted "March of the Volunteers" as the national anthem of China, though the latter was restored to its previous place after the Cultural Revolution ended. La juxtaposition entre la mort de Mao Zedong et la fin de la révolution culturelle met en avant la responsabilité personnelle de l'ancien président dans cette période où, pour citer l'expression officielle, « dix années de calamités »[19]. Jahrhundert zu datieren und hielt bis zum ersten Weltkrieg an. Mao, initially ambivalent, took to the Politburo floor on February 18 to denounce the opposition directly, giving a full-throated endorsement to the radicals' activities. La plupart des gardes rouges sont des étudiants et des collégiens. The educational opportunities for rural children expanded considerably, while those of the children of the urban elite became restricted by the anti-elitist policies. Ten thousand artillery shells were fired in Chongqing during August 1967. Nombre de luttes de factions n'étaient pas sans ressembler à des guerres de religion, chaque camp se réclamant de la forme la plus authentique du maoïsme[131]. Senior officials such as. Focsaneanu LAZAR, Les textes fondamentaux de l’idéologie politique chinoise à l’époque de la révolution culturelle, Politique étrangère, n°2, pp. Launched by Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Communist Party of China (CPC), its stated goal was to preserve Chinese Communism by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought (known outside China as Maoism) as the dominant ideology in the CPC. Cette agitation permet à Mao de reprendre le contrôle de l'État et du parti communiste. [35], The work teams were hastily dispatched and had a poor understanding of student sentiment. Le sinologue Simon Leys considère que son accession avec comme seule raison d'être mariée à Lin Biao est la preuve de la « décadence du régime »[54]. Yan, Jiaqi. Barnouin, Barbara, and Yu Changgen. Elle doit également établir des comités révolutionnaires. [according to whom?] Il s'y présente à la fois victime et coupable. En outre, en août 1975, l'« effondrement du barrage de Banqiao (en) » (62 barrages dont le barrage de Banqiao se sont effondrés), considérée par certains comme la plus grande catastrophe technologique du monde, a entraîné la mort de 85 600 à 240 000 personnes[8],[9],[10]. In Yunnan Province, the palace of the Dai people's king was torched, and a massacre of Muslim Hui people at the hands of the People's Liberation Army in Yunnan, known as the Shadian incident, reportedly claimed over 1,600 lives in 1975. [198], The Cultural Revolution brought China's education system to a virtual halt for a long time. Mao vowed to increase agricultural production to twice that of 1957 levels. Dans son éditorial, le journal prend position contre la révolution culturelle : « L’histoire a bien montré que, dans la pratique comme dans la théorie, la révolution culturelle a été une erreur totale, en aucun cas elle n’est et ne peut être vue comme une révolution ou un progrès social »[119],[120]. @prefix library: . Ainsi la photographe Hou Bo est accusée d'être contre-révolutionnaire, Jiang Qing lui reprochant notamment ses photographies du président de la république populaire de Chine, Liu Shaoqi tombé en disgrâce. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 27 novembre 2020 à 12:22. [243], Among the over 40 countries which had established diplomatic or half-diplomatic relations with China at the time, around 30 countries went into diplomatic disputes with China—some countries even terminated their diplomatic relations with China, including Central Africa, Ghana and Indonesia. On ne traitera pas ici de la question de l'enseignement, qui a fait l'objet d'un précédent article, « La révolution dans l'enseigne ment en Chine », Esprit, janvier 1971. Dans l'agriculture, apprendre de Dazhai ! [58] Libraries full of historical and foreign texts were destroyed; books were burned. Red Guards also laid siege to the Temple of Confucius in Shandong province,[57] and numerous other historically significant tombs and artifacts. de Rémy Rieffel @inproceedings{Besson2014RvolutionNR, title={R{\'e}volution num{\'e}rique, r{\'e}volution culturelle ? [25], Lu's removal gave Maoists unrestricted access to the press. [222], Documents released in 1980 regarding the prosecution of the Gang of Four show more than 2,600 people in the field of arts and literature were revealed to have been persecuted by the Ministry of Culture and units under it alone. To him, landscape paintings should also not be considered one of the "Four Olds". Plus tard, lors du mouvement d'envoi des zhiqing à la campagne, la majorité de ces derniers se voient refuser la possibilité de mariage et de relations amoureuses. Pourtant, devant l'aggravation de la situation sécuritaire dans le pays, l’armée est à nouveau sollicitée pour museler des groupes d’étudiants d’extrême-gauche. Posted on February 27, 2013 by irenevelazquez. Trad., commentaires et pref. The 1975 Banqiao Dam failure, one of the world's greatest technological catastrophes, also occurred during the Cultural Revolution. Abstract. For many of them there may be reasons to think positively of him. Zhou attempted to restore a viable economy but was resented by the Gang of Four, who identified him as their primary political threat in post-Mao era succession. [98], Factional rivalries intensified at the Second Plenum of the Ninth Congress in Lushan held in late August 1970. [205] Some counties in Zhanjiang had illiteracy rates as high as 41% some 20 years after the revolution. [36] The party leadership subsequently became divided over whether or not work teams should remain in place. Un phénomène qui rythme le monde moderne depuis 3 siècles, avec des cycles étonnement réguliers de 100 ans : 1780, 1880, 1980 ! Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. [citation needed], In Mainland China, the official view of the party now serves as the dominant framework for Chinese historiography of the period; alternative views (see below) are discouraged. [106] Jiang Qing's position also strengthened after Lin's flight. [according to whom?] Les activités doivent alors s'arrêter et les travailleurs écoutent les haut-parleurs déversant la bonne parole[105]. She allied herself with Wang Hongwen and propaganda specialists Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, forming a political clique later pejoratively dubbed as the "Gang of Four". one of the most tyrannical despots of the twentieth century. Public opinion -- France -- History -- 20th century. La révolution culturelle s'avéra dans les faits un mouvement décentralisé et divers qui perdit peu à peu de sa cohésion, se muant en un grand nombre de « révolutions locales » qui différaient par leur nature et leurs buts[129]. [107] The country's economy had fallen into disarray, which necessitated the rehabilitation of purged lower-level officials. Subsequently, Gen. Chen Zaidao was sent to Beijing and tried by Jiang Qing and the rest of the Cultural Revolution Group. Contesté à la tête du régime après l'échec du Grand Bond en avant (1958-1961), qui a provoqué un véritable marasme économique en Chine populaire et accéléré la rupture des relations avec l'U.R.S.S. Meanwhile, Mao also sacked Propaganda Department director Lu Dingyi, a Peng Zhen ally. En 2018, des reportages ont prétendu que la pratique du Fengqiao, typique de la révolution culturelle, où un village entier s’acharnait dans la critique d’un « contre-révolutionnaire », aurait recommencé dans quelques endroits en Chine[122]. Les chercheurs ont souligné que le nombre de morts dans les « Wudou » variait de 300 000 à 500 000, tandis que certains documents du Parti communiste chinois ont révélé que 237 000 personnes avaient été tuées[68],[78],[93]. À partir du 15 juin 1976, Mao, atteint par la maladie de Charcot, cesse de parler et agonise. Ceux qui voulaient que la révolution s'arrête, et ceux qui voulaient aller plus loin vers le communisme. Son allocution marque pourtant une rupture dans l'histoire de Total : pour la première fois depuis 1924, date de la création de la Compagnie française des pétroles, le groupe intègre l'idée de la diminution de son produit vedette, le pétrole, dans son chiffre d'affaires. Des leçons doivent être tirées de la révolution culturelle (Quotidien du Peuple), En Chine, l’anniversaire de la révolution culturelle fâche les princes rouges, Fengqiao – Un réveil maoïste pour attaquer la religion, http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/perch_1021-9013_1997_num_39_1_2085, Tiananmen : les émouvants Mémoires de Zhao Ziyang, The Battle for China’s Past. In addition, Mao had also lost confidence in the ability of the Gang of Four to manage the economy and saw Deng as a competent and effective leader. The Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) official view of he Cultural Revolution, corresponding to the mainstream Chinese intelligentsia understanding and appreciation, is well received and supported by the Western media and most of the scholarly community. Pendant la révolution culturelle, les journées doivent commencer par trois saluts devant un portrait de Mao Zedong. Le 18 août 1966, du haut de Tian'anmen, Mao et Lin Biao firent de fréquentes apparitions pour se faire acclamer par environ un million de gardes rouges[29]. Les gardes rouges furent rejoints par les exclus du parti, les ouvriers précaires et quelques cadres opportunistes[27]. 15 dates clés de la révolution culturelle en Russie entre 1917 et 1953 15 dates clés de la révolution culturelle en Russie entre 1917 et 1953. Pp. En 1981, le Parti communiste chinois a déclaré que la révolution culturelle était « responsable du revers le plus grave et des pertes les plus lourdes subies par le Parti, le pays et le peuple depuis la fondation de la République populaire de Chine.

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